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Q 1- Identify the role played by United Nations in conservation of Environment.

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), established in 1972, addresses environmental issues at the global and regional level for the United Nations.

UNEP’s mission is “to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing, and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations.”  

To accomplish its mission, UNEP:

  • assesses environmental conditions and trends at the global, regional and national levels; 
  • develops international agreements and national environmental instruments; and 
  • strengthens institutions for wise environmental management. 

​UNEP is governed by the United Nations Environment Assembly, a council with universal membership that sets the UNEP agenda. 

Methods of Environmental Conservation?

Now that you are familiar with the meaning and importance of Environmental Conservation, let’s understand the core methods through which it can be effectively facilitated:

Forest Conservation 

We know that plants and trees are the essential sources of air, food as well as other day-to-day products we use. Forests are the dwelling place of different living creatures and a single disturbance in the ecosystem can cause disruption in the water cycle as well as the food chain. Thus, afforestationis amongst the core Environmental conservation and aims to plant more trees as well as save the existing ones from cutting down as trees play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance. 

Soil Conservation

As one of the prominent methods for environmental conservation, the need for soil conservation has arisen to tackle the harmful effects of soil pollution. On earth, the soil is the main element that plays a pivotal role in soil erosion, land degradation and floods. Soil is filled with rich nutrients for plant production. Soil conservation can be carried out by ensuring minimal use of fertilizers and venomous chemicals as well as abolishing the disposal of harmful industrial waste in the soil. 

Waste Management

Especially in developing countries and congested places, on a daily basis, a large amount of waste is thrown away recklessly on the streets and roads. The improper disposal of waste segregation can lead to various dreadful diseases as well as soil pollution.

To ensure minimal wastage as well as facilitate waste disposal, we can opt for various techniques like the 3R’s, i.e. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle, dry and wet waste segregation, amongst others.

Public Awareness 

With the boom of information technology and the advent of digital media, public awareness pertaining to environmental conservation can potentially yield promising results. There is a dire need to aware the masses of the consequences of environmental pollution and degradation. Further, every individual should be made conscious of how they are polluting the environment and what steps can be taken to implement environmental conservation, be it through using greener energy sources to following the 3Rs of Reduce, Recycle and Reuse. 

Pollution Control 

As the increase in temperature is concerning, there is a need to keep a watch on the toxic compounds we ingest that pollute the atmosphere. We need to adopt environmentally sustainable methods to minimise multiple forms of emissions, such as eliminating waste, saving electricity, limiting the unnecessary usage of fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides, and using energy-efficient appliances, among others.

Q 2-What are Environmental NGO, what are their objectives? Are they Successful? Discuss with examples.

NGOs are now playing an important role in framing the environmental policy, mobi­lizing public support for environmental conservation, and protecting the endangered species of forests and animals. Environmental organizations such as Earth watch and Sea Shepherd Conservation Society have been successful in creating awareness about the environmental dangers in using drift nets in the commercial fishing industry.


Greenpeace is an environment-friendly international organization, which aims at promoting environmental awareness. It is an independent, campaigning organiza­tion, addressing the environmental abuse through direct, non-violent confrontations with governments and companies. It exposes the global environmental problems and provides solutions for a healthy environment.

It campaigns to:

1. Stop Climate Change:

The extensive use of oil, gas, fuel, and other energy resources leads to climatic changes, which results in global warming. In order to stop climate change, Greenpeace is campaigning on various fronts. It has been researching to stop climate change and to promote clean energy solutions.

2. Protect Ancient Forests:

Many forests of the world are in crisis. The plants and animals are facing the threat of extinction. People living in forests and depend­ing on them for their livelihood are also under threat. Greenpeace takes up the responsibility to save the forests and provides solutions for the same.

3. Save the Oceans:

Greenpeace’s save the oceans campaign currently focuses on four major threats to the world’s oceans: overfishing, pirate fishing, whaling, and intensive shrimp aquaculture.

4. Stop Whaling:

Commercial Whaling has resulted in the decline of the world’s whale population. In order to stop commercial whaling, Greenpeace is working on many fronts. Through political work public outreach and by adopting non­violent direct, action against the whalers at sea. Greenpeace is fighting against commercial whaling.

5. Say No to Genetic Engineering:

Genetic engineering enables creation of plants, animals and micro-organisms through the manipulation of genes. The organisms, which are produced through genetic engineering when interbred with the natural organisms lead to new environments, which are uncontrolled.

Their release into the environment leads to “genetic pollution”, as once released they cannot be recalled back. Greenpeace believes that “organisms,” which are genetically engineered, should not be released into the environment without adequate knowledge of their impact on the health and environment. It advo­cates taking immediate measures such as labeling of genetically engineered ingredients, and the segregation of genetically engineered crops from conven­tional ones.

6. Stop the Nuclear Threat:

Greenpeace campaigns against the use of nuclear power as its use has never been peaceful. It leads to accidents, deaths, and disasters. Radiation released into the environment through the nuclear tests has led to the contamination of soil, air, rivers, and oceans, causing cancer and other diseases in people.

7. Eliminate Toxic Chemicals:

Greenpeace also campaigns against toxic chemicals, as they prove to be a global threat to the health and environment.

8. Encourage Sustainable Trade:

Greenpeace opposes the current form of glo­balization that is increasing corporate power. It demands that the World Trade Organization (WTO) adopt a policy of trade, which works for all and that pre­serves and restores the environment. Governments must work toward achieving sustainable development, which means integrating three things: environmental, social, and economic priorities.

Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF)—India:

WWF is an international organization for wildlife conservation with its focus on protecting particular species of wildlife fauna. As its range of activities broadened, the international organization believed that its name no longer reflected the scope of its activities and became the Worldwide Fund for Nature in 1986. But the affiliated groups in the United States and Canada retained the original name. The organization is now simply, referred to as WWF.

WWF-India was established as a Charitable Trust in 1969. 

The WWF-India Mission has five broad program components:

1. Promoting India’s ecological security; restoring the ecological balance.

2. Conserving biological diversity.

3. Ensuring sustainable use of the natural resource base.

4. Minimizing pollution and wasteful consumption, promoting sustainable lifestyles.

5. WWF-India implements its conservation programs through Field Programs, Public Policy, Education, Communications, NGO Networking, and Resource Mobilization.

Some Other Environmental Organizations in India:

1. The Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS):

Founded in 1883, is recog­nized as one of the foremost conservation research organizations in the world. It aims to collect data on the specimens on natural history throughout the Indian sub-continent. To disseminate knowledge of flora and fauna by means of lectures, field trips, literature, expeditions and to study wildlife-related problems and rec­ommend management plans to conserve wildlife and its habitat.

2. Development Alternatives Group:

Development Alternatives Group based in Delhi works in all parts of the country. It was established in 1983 to design options and promote sustain­able development through programs of economic efficiency, equity and social justice, resource conservation, and self-reliance. Its activities cover the entire nation: It is working in the field of pollution monitoring and control, waste recycling management, wasteland development, and appropriate technology.

3. The Energy Research Institute (TERI):

Established in 1974, is a wholly indepen­dent, non-profit research institute. Its mission is to develop and promote technolo­gies, policies, and institutions for efficient and sustainable use of natural resources. It has been imparting environmental education through projects, workshops, audio-visual aids, and quiz competitions.


Q 1-AFSPA has its own advantages and disadvantages. Discuss

Armed Forces Special Powers Act or AFSPA gives extraordinary powers to the military to keep everything under control in “upset regions”. As per the demonstration, the upset zone is announced by giving warning under Section 3 of AFSPA.

Key Provisions of AFSPA

  • Any suspect will be captured during the demonstration without warrant.
  • The military can preclude get-together of at least five people.
  • The military can utilize powers till his demise if an individual is a rehashed guilty party and attempts to upset the harmony in the zone.
  • The demonstration permits the military to stop any vehicle and search.

 Advantages of AFSPA

AFSPA gives certain advantages to the Indian Armed Forces. Below are few of them mentioned.

  • AFSPA gives special powers to the Indian Armed Forces which helps them to tackle uncertain situations.
  • Powers given to Armed Forces under AFSPA boost the morale of the forces giving them complete control to protect the boundaries of the country.

 Criticism of AFSPA

There are many instances where AFSPA has been used inappropriately by the Armed Forces.

  • AFSPA exploits the basic human rights of the people living in disturbed areas.
  • AFSPA gives absolute power to the forces. Absolute Power corrupts absolutely. Armed Forces misuse their power and conduct fake encounters and sexually exploit the women.
  • AFSPA violates the Fundamental Rights of people living in disturbed areas. It violates Article 22 which provides safeguards for preventive and punitive detentions.


(1) Comment

  • ttyeavbfsw November 27, 2023 @ 1:33 am

    Muchas gracias. ?Como puedo iniciar sesion?

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