Current Affairs 31 December

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31 December 2022

8 Core Industries Weight  
GS 2

China has managed to engineer a realignment of the world order through strategic use of debt diplomacy, economic power and a ‘common enemy’ doctrine.

  • Justice Chandrachud points out that some pending cases date back to 1970s; over 63 lakh cases in the country delayed due to non­availability of counsel; he stresses the importance of digitisation- as per the National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG) data
  • Over the past five years, the number of registered start­-ups in India has grown from 452 in 2016 to 84,012, according to figures presented in Parliament

Ministry Of Education

Samagra Shiksha

The Centrally sponsored scheme of Samagra Shiksha of the Department of School Education and Literacy is an overarching programme for the school education sector extending from pre-school to class XII. The scheme treats school education as a continuum and is in accordance with Sustainable Development Goal for Education (SDG-4). The Samagra Shiksha Scheme has been aligned with the recommendations of the National Education Policy: 2020 (NEP: 2020) and extended from 2021-22 to 2025-26

ICT and smart class approvals:

Under the Information & Communication Technology (ICT) component of the Samagra Shiksha Scheme, there is a provision to impart computer literacy and computer-enabled learning to children, by developing and deploying curriculum-based interactive multimedia, digital books, virtual labs etc. across the country. It supports the establishment of smart classrooms, and ICT labs in schools, including support for hardware, educational software and e-content for teaching.

PRASHAST Mobile App – “Pre Assessment Holistic Screening Tool”:

Department of School Education & Literacy has launched a Disabilities Screening Checklist for Schools and an Android Mobile App titled as PRASHAST Mobile App – “Pre Assessment Holistic Screening Tool” for schools during Shikshak Parv, 2022. PRASHAST App will help in screening 21 disability conditions recognized in RPwD Act, 2016, at the school level and will generate the school-wise report, for further sharing with the authorities for initiating the certification process, as per guidelines of Samagra Shiksha. PRASHAST Mobile App has been developed by CIET, NCERT.


NEP 2020 envisages a shift from summative assessment to regular and formative assessment, which is more competency-based, promotes learning and development, and tests higher-order skills, such as analysis, critical thinking, and conceptual clarity. In view of implementation of NEP 2020, a new National Assessment Centre, PARAKH (Performance Assessment, Review, and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development) will be setup as a standard-setting body under Ministry of Education in NCERT. This centre will work for setting norms, standards, and guidelines for student assessment and evaluation for all recognized school boards of India, hand holding the States and undertaking the National Achievement Survey (NAS). This Centre will also advise school boards regarding new assessment patterns and latest researches, promoting collaborations between school boards. It will encourage and assist school boards to shift their assessment patterns towards meeting the skill requirements of the 21st century. PARAKH will be established as a technical organisation with knowledge of assessment standards and skills, as well as a robust understanding of policymaking and implementation.

Actions initiated by the Department for implementation of NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY (NEP):

NEP Implementation Plan ‘SARTHAQ’ (Students’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement through Quality Education) has been released on 8th April, 2021.

A National Foundational Literacy and Numeracy Mission named as ‘National Initiative for Proficiency in Reading with Understanding and Numeracy – (NIPUN BHARAT) was launched on 5th July 2021, for ensuring that every child in the country necessarily attains foundational literacy and numeracy in Grade 3 by 2026-27.

NCERT has developed a 3 Months Play Based ‘School Preparation Module’ named ‘Vidya Pravesh’ which was launched on 29thJuly 2021.

To connect the Government and Government aided schools through a community/volunteer management program, the Department has revamped the Vidyanjali web portal. The newly introduced portal – Vidyanjali 2.0 aims to help the community/volunteers interact and connect directly with schools of their choice to share their knowledge and skills as well as contribute in the form of assets/material/equipment.

The department has aligned our existing schemes i.e, Samagra Shiksha and Mid Day Meal with the recommendation of NEP 2020.

NISHTHA 4.0 (ECCE) – Online: Teacher training programme for Early Childhood Care and Education has been launched on 06th September, 2022 with 6 modules. Initiated in 36 States/UTs in 2 languages, and in 5 Autonomous Organisation under MoE, MOD &MOTA. It targets to train 25 Lakh teachers and school heads at pre-primary and primary level.

PM Schools for Rising India (PM SHRI):

The Cabinet has been approved a newly central sponsored scheme called PM SHRI on 7 September, 2022. These schools will showcase the implementation of the National Education Policy 2020 and emerge as exemplar schools over a period of time, and also offer leadership to other schools in the neighborhood. They will provide leadership in their respective regions in providing high-quality education in an equitable, inclusive and joyful school environment that takes care of the diverse background, multilingual needs, and different academic abilities of children and makes them active participants in their own learning process as per the vision of NEP 2020.

Under the scheme there is provision of setting up of More than 14500 PM SHRI Schools (PM ScHools for Rising India) by strengthening the existing schools from amongst schools managed by Central government/State/UT Government/local bodies.


Vidyanjali-the school volunteer initiative is an online portal that acts as a facilitator by connecting volunteers directly to the schools.  The effort is to bridge the knowledge / skill / human resource and infrastructure gap in the schools by tapping the potential available in the civil society. This is not to substitute the government responsibility, but to compliment, supplement and strengthen government efforts to reach the last mile in the best possible way.

GS 3

8 Core Industries Weight

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