Nord Stream pipeline
‘62% rural houses have tap water connections’
Choose ‘safe surrender’ over infant abandonment
ETHICS – CASE STUDY
NORD STREAM PIPELINE
CONTEXT- Four leaks were reported at different points in the Nord Stream pipelines, linking Russia and Europe, since September 26.
- Nord Stream consists of two pipelines, which have two lines each.
- Nord Stream 1 runs from Vyborg in Leningrad (Russia) to Lubmin near Greifswald, Germany.
- Nord Stream 2 runs from Ust-Luga in Leningrad to Lubmin
- The twin pipelines together can transport a combined total of 110 billion cubic metres (bcm) of gas a year to Europe for at least 50 years.
- The Nord Stream crosses the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of several countries including Russia, Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Germany, and the territorial waters of Russia, Denmark, and Germany.
- In Germany, the pipeline connects to the OPAL (Baltic Sea Pipeline) and NEL (North European Pipeline) which further connects to the European grid.
Importance for Europe and Russia:
- Europe requires more than 100 billion cubic metres (bcm) of natural gas each year and around 40% of its gas comes from Russia.
- Over the last few years, Europe has become more dependent on gas imports because of a decrease in domestic gas production. Reducing dependence on Russian gas is difficult as there are no easy replacements.
- As for Russia, which has the largest natural gas reserves in the world, around 40% of its budget comes from sales of gas and oil.
- Nord Stream 2 is important because it eliminates the risks related with sending gas through transit countries, cuts operating costs by doing away with transit fees and gives direct access to its most important European customer, Germany.
- It increases Europe’s dependence on Russia while giving it a reliable customer.
Objections to the Pipeline:
- By Germany:
- According to environmentalists, it does not fit in with German efforts to cut dependence on fossil fuels and fight climate change.
- The strategic objection, particularly from the EU, is that it will make Europe too dependent on Russia, increasing Russia’s influence in Europe.
‘62% RURAL HOUSES HAVE TAP WATER CONNECTIONS’
CONTEXT-according to a survey commissioned by the Union Ministry of Water Resources to assess the functioning of the government’s marquee Jal Jeevan Mission.
JAL JEEVAN MISSION
The Mission was announced in August 2019.
The chief objective of the Mission is to provide piped water supply (Har Ghar Jal) to all rural and urban households by 2024.
It also aims to create local infrastructure for rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and management of household waste water for reuse in agriculture.
The Mission will converge with other Central and State Government Schemes to achieve its objectives of sustainable water supply management across the country.
Benefits of the mission:
- Household pipeline water supply.
- Clean and drinkable water.
- Recharge of groundwater level.
- Better local infrastructure.
- Less water-borne diseases.
- Less water wastage.
Need for and significance of the mission:
India has 16% of the world population, but only 4% of freshwater resources. Depleting groundwater level, overexploitation and deteriorating water quality, climate change, etc. are major challenges to provide potable drinking water.
It is an urgent requirement of water conservation in the country because of the decreasing amount of groundwater level. Therefore, the Jal Jeevan Mission will focus on integrated demand and supply management of water at the local level.
CHOOSE ‘SAFE SURRENDER’ OVER INFANT ABANDONMENT
Abandonment vs safe surrender
An abandoned child means a child who is deserted by his biological or adoptive parents or guardians, while a surrendered child is relinquished on account of physical, emotional and social factors beyond their control
Data by the National Crime Records Bureau show that no less than 709 criminal cases of ‘exposure and abandonment of child under twelve years’ under Section 317 of the Indian Penal Code were registered in the year 2021.
Why to Choose ‘safe surrender’ over infant abandonment?
1-It is always advisable to surrender a child rather than abandon him if the conditions to retain the child are beyond the control of parentsor guardian.
2-Abandonment endangers the child’s life. Surrender before the CWC is a guarantee that the child will be taken care of till he or she attains majority or is adopted by a fit and willing parent.
3-It is pertinent to note that no case is registered when a child is surrendered to the Child Welfare Committee (CWC) constituted under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 (or the JJ Act)
According to the portal of the Central Adoption Resource Authority, there were 2,991 in-country adoptions and 414 inter-country adoptions in 2021-22.
Reasons for child abandonment
As most of the reasons for child abandonment are an unwanted pregnancy, breakdown of a relationship, lower socioeconomic status, eitheror both parents being drug addicts or alcoholics, a child can be considered eligible for surrender and declared so after the prescribed process of inquiry and counselling.
1-Awareness is the key One of the major reasons for the abandonment of children is a lack of awareness about the law on the surrender of unwanted children. Since it is believed that most cases of unwanted pregnancies are known to Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), daais and anganwadi workers, who have a strong network in villages, educating and sensitising them may reduce incidents of abandonment. The staff of nursing homes should also be included in such a programme.
2-Although, the surrender deed is to be executed before the CWC, a parent or guardian may approach any police officer, public servant, ChildLine services, recognised nongovernmental organisations, voluntary organisation, child welfare officer or probation officer, social worker or public-spirited person, nurse or doctor or management of a nursing home, hospital or maternity home when wanting to surrender a child.
3-Wide publicity needs to be given to these provisions of the JJ Act so that no child is deserted, and parents, guardians and functionaries who are mandated to report any abandonment do not face a risk.
Organs of AIIMS official’s sister gives life to 4
Organs of a senior Delhi AIIMS official’s sister who was declared brain dead a few days ago were donated, giving a fresh lease of life to four people and vision to two. Snehlata Choudhary, sister of Rabindra Agarwal, an IAS officer posted as the additional director of administration at Delhi’s AIIMS, had sustained a severe head injury during her morning walk last month.
Her kidney and corneas were donated to patients at AIIMS, while her liver will be utilised in the Army RR hospital. Her second kidney was given to a patient at Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital. The forensic medicine team conducted virtual autopsy — computed tomography and also carried out post-mortem during organ retrieval. Donation of organs by a bureaucrat’s family member comes at a time when the government is trying to create awareness around the issue