Current Affairs 3 November

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3 November 2022

Panamaram heronry
Jim Corbett National Part
Pahari ethnic community

GS 3


Context-Curious collage shows rhino horns are shrinking

The horns of rhinoceroses may have become smaller over time from the impact of hunting, according to a recent study which analysed artwork and photographs of the animal spanning more than five centuries. The study, published in the latest edition of People and Nature by the British Ecological Society, relied on a repository of images maintained by the Netherland based Rhino Research Centre (RRC)


  • There are five species of rhino – white and black rhinos in Africa, and the greater one-horned, Javan and Sumatran rhinospecies in Asia.
    • IUCN Red List Status:

      • Black Rhino: Critically endangered. Smaller of the two African species.
      • White Rhino: Near Threatened. Researchers have created an embryo of the northern white rhino by using In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) process.
      • One-Horned Rhino: Vulnerable
      • Javan: Critically Endangered
      • Sumatran Rhino: Critically Endangered. It has gone extinct in Malaysia.
  • Only the Great One-Horned Rhino is found in India.
  • Also known as Indian rhino, it is the largest of the rhino species.
  • It is identified by a single black horn and a grey-brown hide with skin folds.
  • They primarily graze, with a diet consisting almost entirely of grasses as well as leaves, branches of shrubs and trees, fruit, and aquatic plants.

What are the Conservation Efforts?

  • The five rhino range nations (India, Bhutan, Nepal, Indonesia and Malaysia) have signed a declaration ‘The New Delhi Declaration on Asian Rhinos 2019’ for the conservation and protection of the species.
  • Recently, the Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has begun a project to create DNA profiles of all rhinos in the country.
  • National Rhino Conservation Strategy: It was launched in 2019 to conserve the greater one-horned rhinoceros.
  • Indian Rhino Vision 2020: Launched in 2005, it was an ambitious effort to attain a wild population of at least 3,000 greater one-horned rhinos spread over seven protected areas in the Indian state of Assam by the year 2020.

Panamaram heronry

The Panamaram heronry is the largest breeding ground of herons in Kerala’s Malabar region

Jim Corbett National Part

Context-Uttarakhand defending wrongdoings on tree felling in Corbett: FSI 

Jim Corbett Park is located in Nanital district in Uttarakhand. It was established in 1936. Corbett national park is the first national park in India and the 1st national park in Asia, established during British rule. Originally it was Hailey National Park. After the independence of India, it was renamed to Corbett National Park in the year 1956.

The major rivers that flow through the Reserve are the Ramganga, Sonanadi, Mandal, Palain, and Kosi.

The park became a part of Project Tiger when the Government of India launched it in 1973.

The park is well-known for its Royal Bengal tigers and Asian elephants.

Terai Arc Landscape Program

The World Wide Fund (WWF) for Nature under the Terai Arc Landscape Program protects the national park.

Pahari ethnic community

Context-Pahari ethnic community added to Scheduled Tribes list of Jammu and Kashmir

The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) has now cleared the way for the inclusion of the ‘Pahari ethnic group’ on the Scheduled Tribes list of the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir

The proposal green­lit by the commission also called for the inclusion of the “Paddari tribe”, “Koli” and “Gadda Brahman” communities to be included on the ST list of J&K

The Pir Panjal valley is also home to Gujjars and Bakarwals, who are already categorised as STs, and have expressed resentment over the possibility of the inclusion of Paharis in the ST list.

Once the NCST and theOffice of the RGI have approved the proposal for inclusion, all that remains to be done is for the Union Cabinet to give the final nod


Context-Cabinet approves Mechanism for procurement of ethanol by Public Sector Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) under Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) Programme 

What is ethanol?

Ethanol is basically alcohol of 99%-plus purity, which can be used for blending with petrol.

Produced mainly from molasses, a by-product of sugar manufacture.

Benefits of ethanol blending:

  1. Reduction in import dependency.
  2. Support to agricultural sector.
  3. Environmental friendly fuel.
  4. Additional income to farmers.

About Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) Programme:

Launched in 2003 on pilot basis.

The aim is to promote the use of alternative and environmental friendly fuels.

Implemented by the Ministry or Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs).


  • India is the third largest consumer of energy in the world after China and the US.
  • India is dependent on imports for about 82.1% of its crude oil requirement and to the extent of about 44.4% in case of natural gas.
  • India is expected to need 10 billion litres of ethanol annually to meet the 20% blending target in 2030 if petrol consumption continues to grow at the current pace. At present, the capacity stands at 1.55 billion litres a year.

Concerns and challenges:

  1. Consistent shortfall in supply of ethanol in the past, mainly on account of the cyclical nature of the sugarcane harvests in the country.
  2. Lack of an integrated approach in the EBP across its value chain.

Way ahead:

The National Policy on Bio-fuels has set a target of 20% blending of biofuels, both for bio-diesel and bio-ethanol. This will require an integrated approach in the Ethanol Blending Programme (EBP). The time is ripe for a cogent and consistent policy and administrative framework in the program implementation for the success of EBP.


1-Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) Organization:

The organization of the Chief Labour Commissioner (Central), also known as Central Industrial Relations Machinery is an Apex Organization in the country responsible for maintaining harmonious industrial relations mainly in the sphere of Central Government. It is a subordinate office of Ministry of Labour and Employment. The main function of the organization of Chief Labour Commissioner (central) is to facilitate and enforce the labour laws, quasi-judicial functions, prevention and settlement of industrial     disputes through conciliation/mediation and verification of trade union membership.

2-Union Cabinet nods the change of name of Greenfield Airport at Hollongi, Itanagar as “Donyi Polo Airport, Itanagar

3-“Reverse inheritance” (parents to have rights over their offspring’s property)

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