29 November 2022
Gujjar and Bakerwal tribes
Janjatiya Anusandhan – Asmita, Astitva evam Vikas’
|Indian Art and Culture|
Kolkali, a folk art performed in the Malabar region of Kerala
The dance performers move in a circle, striking small sticks and keeping rhythm with special steps. The circle expands and contracts as the dance progress. The accompanying music gradually rises in pitch and the dance reaches its climax.
Kolkali is now a popular event in Kerala School Kalolsavam, which is considered as the biggest cultural event of Asia.
There are two styles of Kolkali: the actual Kolkali and Thekkan Koladi. The actual Kolkali consists of Thacholikali, Rajasooyam etc. The actual kolkali is almost at verge of extinction and Thekkan Koladi is still alive as it is added in state kololsavams.
Mauna Loa, world’s largest active volcano, starts to erupt in Hawaii
Mauna Loa is one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii in the U.S. state of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean.
The largest subaerial volcano (as opposed to subaqueous volcanoes) in both mass and volume, Mauna Loa has historically been considered the largest volcano on Earth, dwarfed only by Tamu Massif.
It is an active shield volcano with relatively gentle slopes, with a volume estimated at 18,000 cubic miles (75,000 km3),although its peak is about 125 feet (38 m) lower than that of its neighbour, Mauna Kea.
Lava eruptions from Mauna Loa are silica-poor and very fluid, and they tend to be non-explosive.
Gujjar and Bakerwal tribes
The Save Tribals March (STM), a street agitation launched by Gujjar and Bakerwal activists
The Paharis, unlike Gujjars and Bakerwals who are Muslims, comprise a mixed population of both Hindus and Muslims
For a detailed picture kindly visit Gujjar-Bakarwals – A Unique and Significant Ethnic Group of Jammu and Kashmir (yourarticlelibrary.com)
Janjatiya Anusandhan – Asmita, Astitva evam Vikas’
The delegates of a National Workshop on ‘Janjatiya Anusandhan – Asmita, Astitva evam Vikas’ called on the President of India, Smt Droupadi Murmu at Rashtrapati Bhavan Cultural Centre today (November 28, 2022). President also received the first copy of the book ‘Swatantrata Sangram me Janjati Nayakon ka Yodgan’ from Shri Harsh Chouhan, Chairperson of National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.
Addressing the gathering, the President said that blending of technology and traditions, modernity and culture is the need of the hour. We must be ready to lead the world with the power of knowledge. The promotion and development of knowledge of tribal society would play an important role in making India a knowledge superpower. She expressed confidence that the people of the tribal society, writers, researchers, would make an invaluable contribution to the development of the tribal society with their thoughts, works and research.
The most disheartening reality is that despite almost a third of women being subject to domestic violence, the National Family Health Survey5 (201921) reports that only 14% of women who have experienced domestic violence have ever sought help; and this number is much lower in the rural areas.
Context-Recognising that the Indo -Pacific region will play a “significant and profound” role in its future.
Canada released an Indo-Pacific strategy which termed China an “increasingly disruptive” global power. Calling India a “crucial partner”, the strategy said Canada will seek new opportunities to partner and engage in dialogue with India in areas of common interest and values, including security, and the promotion of democracy, pluralism and human rights
Canada Seek to expand market ac cess by concluding an Early Progress Trade Agreement [EPTA] as a step towards a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement,”
Bilateral Mechanisms for Cooperation
Both sides pursue bilateral relations through the following dialogue mechanisms:
- Ministerial level- Strategic, Trade and Energy dialogues
- Foreign Office Consultations; and
- Other sector specific joint working groups (JWG)
- Joint Working Group (JWG) on Higher Education(Since 2019)
- JWG on Counter Terrorism
- Joint Committee Meeting on Civil Nuclear cooperation
India-Canada has established a Track 1.5 Dialogue on involving experts, government officials and business leaders from both sides to explore the possibility of future cooperation
Bilateral trade between India and Canada stands at USD 5 billion
More than 400 Canadian companies have a presence in India, and more than 1,000 companies are actively pursuing business in the Indian market.
Also, Canada and India are working toward a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement and a Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (FIPA)
Key sectors supported in India by Global Affairs Canada through multilateral funding include: sustainable economic development, treatment of infectious diseases, and nutrition.
The International Development Research Centre(IDRC) continues to have an active presence in India with projects focusing on
- the links between climate change and migration
- the reduction of violence against vulnerable populations
- women’s rights, security and access to justice
- economic opportunities for Indian workers, especially women; and
- improving food security
- Nuclear Cooperation
A Nuclear Cooperation Agreement (NCA) with Canada was signed in 2010 and came into force in 2013
In 2015, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) signed an agreement for supply of uranium ore concentrate to India in 2015-2020
Security and Defence
- India and Canada collaborate closely in international fora particularly through the UN, Commonwealth and G-20
- Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has signed a MoU for cooperation with Canada’s York University (signed in 2012), which focuses on biological and chemical warfare and sensors.
- There is substantial engagement on counter terrorism issues particularly through the framework of the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Counter Terrorism
- Energy has been a primary area of our focus, considering that Canada is an ‘energy superpower’ with one of the world’s largest resources of uranium, natural gas, oil, coal, minerals and advanced technologies in hydropower, mining, renewable energy and nuclear energy
- India Oil Corporation has a 10% participating interest in a Liquid Natural Gas project in British Columbia
Science and Technology
- Indo-Canadian Science and Technology cooperation has been primarily focussed on promoting Industrial R&D which has potential for application through development of new IP, processes, prototypes or products
- Department of Biotechnology under IC-IMPACTS program implements joint research projects in health care, agro-biotech and waste management
- Department of Earth Science and Polar Canada have started a programme for exchange of knowledge and scientific research on Cold Climate (Arctic) Studies
- India and Canada are pursuing successful cooperative and commercial relations in the field of Space since 1990s mainly on space science, earth observation, satellite launch services and ground support for space missions
- ISRO and Canadian Space Agency (CSA) have signed MOUs in the field of exploration and utilisation of outer space
- ANTRIX, the Commercial arm of ISRO, has launched several nanosatellites from Canada
- ISRO in its 100th Satellite PSLV launched in 2018, also flew Canadian first LEO satellite, from Indian spaceport Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh
- Recently India became the top source of foreign students with 203000 Indian students studying in Canada
- Many Canadian faculty members have visited India, under the Global Initiative of Academic Works (GIAN) programme for teaching assignments in Indian institutions
- Canada is one of the 28 countries covered under the Scheme for promotion of Academic and Research Collaboration (SPARC), an initiative aiming to improve research ecosystems in India’s higher education institutions
- The Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute (SICI) is a unique bi-national organization fostering, since 1968, education and cultural cooperation and collaboration between India and Canada
- As part of commemoration of 550th Birth Anniversary of Guru Nanak Devji, it was decided by GOI to set up a Chair on Guru Nanak Devji in a Canadian University
- Canada hosts one of the largest Indian diasporas in the world, numbering 1.6 million (PIOs and NRIs) which account for more than 3% of its total population
- The diaspora has done commendably well in every sector in Canada
- In the field of politics, in particular, the present House of Common (total strength of 338) has 22 Members of Parliament of Indian-origin
India-Canada COVID-19 Collaboration
- Supply of Hydroxichloroquine (HCQ) to Canada: As part of the series of shipments of the drugs to various countries, India supplied consignment of five million tablets of HCQ to Canada
- Evacuation of stranded Indian and Canadian nationals from each other’s’ countries and Air Bubble operations: India and Canada made arrangement to evacuate their respective stranded nationals from each other’s countries
- Development of COVID-19 vaccines: External Affairs Minister and the Canadian Foreign Minister have discussed the possible cooperation with regard to medical challenges due to COVID-19 pandemic. India has offered to make available its production capacities in PPEs, pharmaceutical products and vaccines to Canadian companies in collaboration
Challenges to India-Canada relations
- The early Sikh immigrants to Canada sought to politically organise themselves, reacting to the anti-immigrant sentiments and discrimination they faced in the country
- Social, economic and political developments in India that affected the interests of the Sikhs like the declaration of emergency in 1975, Riots of 1984, further fuelled their political drive
- Events such as the 1984 riots and the Golden Temple incident are frequently introduced in Canada’s provincial legislatures, often in the form of petitions.
- This has led to regionalisation of Indo-Canadian politics
- While Sikh militancy has largely died down in India, concerns remain about the revival of the Khalistan movement.
- Amongst a small but highly motivated section of the Canadian Sikh diaspora, the movement has been heavily internalised
- Such Activities of a section of the Canadian Sikh diaspora population that have espoused the Khalistan sentiments have contributed greatly to the India–Canada rift
- India has been the largest market for Canadian pulses, peas and lentils.
- In the last few years, India has been receiving bumper crops in pulses, and is unwilling to import the staple food, to protect domestic farmers.
- In this perspective, India’s measure to increase duties by 50% of all imported peas without providing any advanced notice in 2018, irked the Canadian Government
- Bilateral agreements such as the Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) and Investment Promotion and Protection Agreements (BIPPA), have been in negotiation for long time and no progress has been reached by both the countries
- Also, structural impediments such as complex labour laws, market protectionism, and bureaucratic regulations are roadblocks for Indo-Canadian relations
What is the Silverline project?
This project is known to be “SilverLine”. The 529.45 km SilverLine corridor connecting Kasaragod and Thiruvananthapuram, with an operating speed of 200kmph, eases the transport between North and South ends of the state and reduces the total travel time to less than 4 hours, compared with the present 10 to 12 hours.
KVIC Chairman Shri Manoj Kumar inaugurated the ambitious Re-Hab Project (Reducing Human Attacks using Honey Bees) by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, Government of India) at village Chausla, in Forest Range Fatehpur, Haldwani, District Nainital
Advantages of the Project
- Mitigates human-elephant conflicts without causing elephants any harm.
- Very cost-effective compared to traditional methods such as erecting fences or digging trenches.
- It is also a much better and humane method of preventing elephants from entering villages near forest areas than placing fruit laced with bombs as some people have been reported to have done.
- This initiative will also lead to increased honey production and help in enhancing farmers’ incomes.
- It will also avoid crop losses.
|Science and technology|
Shaped Antenna measurement of the background Radio Spectrum 3 (SARAS) telescope — indigenously designed and built at Raman Research Institute — was deployed over Dandiganahalli Lake and Sharavati backwaters, located in Northern Karnataka, in early 2020.
In a first-of-its-kind work, using data from SARAS 3, researchers from the Raman Research Institute (RRI), Bengaluru, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in Australia, along with collaborators at the University of Cambridge and the University of Tel-Aviv, estimated the energy output, luminosity, and masses of the first generation of galaxies that are bright in radio wavelengths.
Scientists study the properties of very early galaxies by observing radiation from hydrogen atoms in and around the galaxies, emitted at a frequency of approximately 1420 MHz. The radiation is stretched by the expansion of the universe, as it travels to us across space and time, and arrives at Earth in lower frequency radio bands 50-200 MHz, also used by FM and TV transmissions. The cosmic signal is extremely faint, buried in orders of magnitude brighter radiation from our own Galaxy and man-made terrestrial interference. Therefore, detecting the signal, even using the most powerful existing radio telescopes, has remained a challenge for astronomers.
“SARAS 3 has improved our understanding of astrophysics of Cosmic Dawn, telling us that less than 3 percent of the gaseous matter within early galaxies was converted into stars, and that the earliest galaxies that were bright in radio emission were also strong in X-rays, which heated the cosmic gas in and around the early galaxies