Current Affairs 26 November

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26 November 2022

António Xavier Trindade
Tribal Affairs
Leith’s Soft-shelled Turtle
‘How to Blow Up a Pipeline’
Naseem Al Bahr
GS 1
Art and Culture

António Xavier Trindade

Context-An exhibition of paintings by renowned Goan painter António Xavier Trindade inaugurated on 24th November 2022 at National Gallery of Modern Art

António Xavier Trindade was born in Sanguem, Goa in 1870. After being encouraged to pursue his artistic talent, Trindade enrolled at the Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy School of Art & Industry in Bombay, a prestigious institution dedicated to the teaching of painting, sculpture and design which followed the traditions of European naturalism as expressed by the south Kensington system.

Trindade`s vast body of work matured in the 1920s and early 1930s, a time when the artist focused mainly on portraits, landscapes and still-life. Influenced by his western upbringing and European artistic trends of that period, Trindade knew how to integrate this legacy naturally in his paintings, either by the themes he chose or the way he approached them.

The work of António Xavier Trindade skilfully interweaves the cultural universes of the Indian Subcontinent and Western Europe, ensuring the painter great acclaim and the highest honors an artist could aspire to at that time

Despite opting for a Western style artistic career, the artist always remained loyal to the people and landscapes of India.

GS 2
Government Schemes


Context-Govt. forms panel to look into MGNREGA’s efficacy


The scheme was introduced as a social measure that guarantees “the right to work”. The key tenet of this social measure and labour law is that the local government will have to legally provide at least 100 days of wage employment in rural India to enhance their quality of life.

Key objectives:

  1. Generation of paid rural employment of not less than 100 days for each worker who volunteers for unskilled labour.
  2. Proactively ensuring social inclusion by strengthening livelihood base of rural poor.
  3. Creation of durable assets in rural areas such as wells, ponds, roads and canals.
  4. Reduce urban migration from rural areas.
  5. Create rural infrastructure by using untapped rural labour.

The following are the eligibility criteria for receiving the benefits under MGNREGA scheme:

  1. Must be Citizen of India to seek NREGA benefits.
  2. Job seeker has completed 18 years of age at the time of application.
  3. The applicant must be part of a local household (i.e. application must be made with local Gram Panchayat).
  4. Applicant must volunteer for unskilled labour.

Key facts related to the scheme:

  1. The Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), Govt of India is monitoring the entire implementation of this scheme in association with state governments.
  2. Individual beneficiary oriented works can be taken up on the cards of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, small or marginal farmers or beneficiaries of land reforms or beneficiaries under the Indira Awaas Yojana of the Government of India.
  3. Within 15 days of submitting the application or from the day work is demanded, wage employment will be provided to the applicant.
  4. Right to get unemployment allowance in case employment is not provided within fifteen days of submitting the application or from the date when work is sought.
  5. Social Audit of MGNREGA works is mandatory, which lends to accountability and transparency.
  6. The Gram Sabha is the principal forum for wage seekers to raise their voices and make demands.
  7. It is the Gram Sabha and the Gram Panchayat which approves the shelf of works under MGNREGA and fix their priority.

Role of Gram Sabha:

  1. It determines the order of priority of works in the meetings of the Gram Sabha keeping in view potential of the local area, its needs, local resources.
  2. Monitor the execution of works within the GP.

Roles of Gram Panchayat:

  1. Receiving applications for registration
  2. Verifying registration applications
  3. Registering households
  4. Issuing Job Cards (JCs)
  5. Receiving applications for work
  6. Issuing dated receipts for these applications for work
  7. Allotting work within fifteen days of submitting the application or from the date when work is sought in the case of an advance application.
  8. Identification and planning of works, developing shelf of projects including determination of the order of their priority.

Responsibilities of State Government in MGNREGA:

  1. Frame Rules on matters pertaining to State responsibilities under Section 32 of the Act ii) Develop and notify the Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme for the State.
  2. Set up the State Employment Guarantee Council (SEGC).
  3. Set up a State level MGNREGA implementation agency/ mission with adequate number of high calibre professionals.
  4. Set up a State level MGNREGA social audit agency/directorate with adequate number of people with knowledge on MGNREGA processes and demonstrated commitment to social audit.
  5. Establish and operate a State Employment Guarantee Fund (SEGF).
Vulnerable Sections

Tribal Affairs

National Education Society for Tribal Students (NESTS) collaborated with National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), to organize a Career Counselling workshop. The workshop was organized on 22nd November 2022 in an online mode for class XI and XII students of EMRSs (Eklavya Model Residential Schools).

The workshop sessions included introduction of students to the fashion organization; building their exposure towards variety of Under Graduate Courses & Extra Co-curricular activities; about Examination Pattern & Eligibility Criteria; interaction with experts; sharing of Alumni’s Journey etc. Enthusiastic participation by EMRS students across the country was reflective of students’ keenness in exploring higher education fields that offer successful career as also suit their individual capabilities.

GS 3

Leith’s Soft-shelled Turtle

India’s proposal for transferring Leith’s Softshell Turtle (Nilssonia leithi) from Appendix II to Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora (CITES) has been adopted by the Conference of Parties (CoP) to CITES in its 19th Meeting at Panama.

Leith’s Softshell Turtle is a large fresh water soft-shelled turtle which is endemic to peninsular India and it inhabits rivers and reservoirs. The species has been subject to intensive exploitation over the past 30 years. It has been poached and illegally consumed within India. It has also been illegally traded abroad for meat and for its calipee. The population of this turtle species is estimated to have declined by 90% over the past 30 years such that the species is now difficult to find. It is classified as ‘Critically Endangered’ by the IUCN.

The species is listed on Schedule IV of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, which gives it protection from hunting as well as trade. However, poaching and illegal trade of protected turtle species is a major challenge in India with seizures of thousands of specimens reported every year. Species level identification of seized specimens is also a challenge. Tortoises and freshwater turtles are targeted for the international pet, meat and calipee trade, as well as for illegal domestic consumption in some areas.

The CITES Appendix I listing of this Turtle species would ensure that legal international trade in the species does not take place for commercial purposes. It would also ensure that international trade in captive-bred specimens only takes place from registered facilities and further that higher and more proportionate penalties are provided for illegal trade of the species.

The listing of the Leith’s soft-shell turtle, thereby, strengthens its CITES protection status so as to ensure better survival of the species.

About CITES: CITES is an international agreement to which States and regional economic integration organizations adhere voluntarily. Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties – in other words they have to implement the Convention – it does not take the place of national laws. Rather it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level.

Value Addition for Main

‘How to Blow Up a Pipeline’

Movie presented at 53rd International Film Festival of India

‘How to Blow Up a Pipeline’- A taut and timely thriller portrays the story of a crew of young environmental activists who with their radical resolve dares to execute a mission to sabotage an oil pipeline. They engage in the act as a reciprocation to the deeds meted out by the system resulting in climate crisis. ‘How to Blow Up a Pipeline’

Movie presented at 53rd International Film Festival of India

‘How to Blow Up a Pipeline’- A taut and timely thriller portrays the story of a crew of young environmental activists who with their radical resolve dares to execute a mission to sabotage an oil pipeline. They engage in the act as a reciprocation to the deeds meted out by the system resulting in climate crisis.


Naseem Al Bahr

The Indian Navy’s guided missile stealth frigate, INS Trikand, offshore patrol vessel, INS Sumitra, and Maritime Patrol Aircraft, (MPA) Dornier, participated in the 13th Edition of the Indian Navy (IN) – Royal Navy of Oman (RNO) bilateral exercise ‘Naseem Al Bahr’ (Sea Breeze).

The exercise was conducted from 19 to 24 Nov 22 off the coast of Oman and had three phases: harbour phase, sea phase and debrief. Activities undertaken during the harbour phase included professional interactions between IN and RNO operations teams and friendly sports fixtures between the two navies. IN Ships Trikand and Sumitra, along with RNO Ships Al Shinas and Al Seeb, sailed for the sea phase. IN – MPA Dornier, RNO MPA and shore based RAFO fighter aircraft Hawks joined the exercise at sea.

The sea phase included tactical maritime exercise involving surface action, air defence, maritime surveillance and interdiction/VBSS.  These operations helped in strengthening interoperability as well as enhancing understanding of each other’s procedures. The last phase of exercise, debrief, was conducted at the RNO Naval Base at Duqm on 23 Nov 22.

India and Oman have traditionally enjoyed warm and friendly relations, sharing common cultural values. Naval exercises have added strength and substance to these bilateral ties. The first IN-RNO exercise was conducted in 1993.  This year marks 30 years of IN-RNO bilateral exercises.

INS Trikand, a frontline frigate, is equipped with a versatile range of weapons and sensors. The ship is a part of the Indian Navy’s Western Fleet, based at Mumbai. INS Sumitra, a multirole offshore patrol vessel is part of the Eastern Fleet of the Indian Navy, based at Visakhapatnam.

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