Project 15B (P15B)
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What is Dokra metal craft?
- Dokra (also spelt Dhokra) is non–ferrous metal casting using the lost-wax casting technique.
- This sort of metal casting has been used in India for over 4,000 years and is still used. One of the earliest known lost wax artefacts is the dancing girl of Mohenjo-daro.
- The lost wax technique for casting of copper based alloys has also been found in China, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Central America, and other places.
- Dhokra Damar tribes are the main traditional metalsmiths of West Bengal and Odisha. Their technique of lost wax casting is named after their tribe, hence Dhokra metal casting.
- The tribe extends from Jharkhand to West Bengal and Odisha; members are distant cousins of the Chhattisgarh Dhokras.
- A few hundred years ago, the Dhokras of Central and Eastern India travelled south as far as Kerala and north as far as Rajasthan and hence are now found all over India.
- Dhokra, or Dokra, a craft from Dwariapur, West Bengal, is popular.
- Recently Adilabad Dokra from Telangana got Geographical Indication tag in 2018
Context-Need taxonomy, definitions to avoid ‘greenwashing’: Rao
Greenwashing is the process of conveying a false impression or misleading information about how a company’s products are environmentally sound. Greenwashing involves making an unsubstantiated claim to deceive consumers into believing that a company’s products are environmentally friendly or have a greater positive environmental impact than they actually do.
The INS Mormugao and its capabilities
- The warship named after the port city of Mormugao in Goa was commissioned on December 18th, 2022 which is a day before the Goa Liberation Day celebrations.
- INS Mormugao is a stealth-guided missile destroyer built by Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDSL).
- It is the second of the four Visakhapatnam-class destroyers being built under the Project 15B (P15B) of the Indian Navy.
Project 15B (P15B)
- Project 15 was initiated during the 1990s with the aim to develop guided missile
- destroyers for the Indian Naval fleet. The project was titled the “Delhi class” and it was followed by
- Project 15A (Kolkata class): It focused mainly on advanced technology and equipment on surface ships.
- Project 15B (Visakhapatnam class): It is a follow-on class of weapon-intensive Project 15A destroyers.
- Project 15B took off in January 2011 with an aim to incorporate advanced design technologies such as state-of-the-art weapons and sensors, modern stealth features and a high degree of automation in order to improve the survivability, manoeuvrability, sea keeping and stealth capabilities of Indian warships.
- The lead ship of Project 15B and the first of the class INS Visakhapatnam was commissioned into the Navy on 21st November 2021.
- INS Mormugao is the second of the Visakhapatnam-class destroyers.
- The other two destroyers of a similar class, INS Imphal and INS Surat are expected to be commissioned between 2023 and 2025.
Capabilities of INS Mormugao
- INS Mormugao is 163 metres long, and 17 metres wide and displaces 7,400 tonnes when fully loaded. It can accommodate around 300 personnel.
- The destroyer is propelled by four gas turbines in a combined gas and gas (COGAG) configuration.
- This propulsion mechanism helps the ship to achieve speeds of more than 30 knots (50km/h) and a maximum range of 4,000 nautical miles.
- INS Mormugao destroyer has multi-dimensional combat capabilities such as surface-to-surface missiles, surface-to-air missiles and advanced surveillance radar.
- The enhanced stealth capabilities ensure a reduced Radar Cross Section or radar signature.
- INS Mormugao’s firepower consists of BrahMos surface-to-surface missiles, Barak-8 surface-to-air (SAM) missiles for a long range of shore and sea-based targets and a 76mm super rapid gun mount.
- The destroyer is also equipped with RBU-6000 anti-submarine rocket launchers and 533mm torpedo launchers.
- The ship is also designed to carry and operate multi-role helicopters.
- The ship has been designed with various automated features with complex digital networks such as the Automatic Power Management System (APMS), Combat Management System (CMS), Gigabyte Ethernet-based Ship Data Network (GESDN), Integrated Platform Management System (IPMS) and Ship Data Network (SDN).
- CMS is used to undertake threat evaluation and resource allocation.
- APMS controls the power management systems.
- IPMS helps control and monitor machinery and auxiliaries.
- SDN acts as the information highway for data from sensors and weapons.
- Additionally, the warship has been designed to include various battle damage control systems, fire zones, distributional power systems which help during emergencies and a total atmospheric control system which helps safeguard the crew against biological, chemical as well as nuclear threats.
Strategic significance of INS Mormugao
- INS Mormugao has been developed with more than 75% indigenous content which is in line with India’s AatmaNirbhar Bharat initiative and is important for the 15-year Indian Naval Indigenisation Plan (INIP) 2015-2030 and overall plans to make India self-reliant in defence technologies.
- With China expanding its naval presence in the Indian Ocean Region, bolstering India’s maritime capabilities to counter the potential threat has become extremely significant.
- The adoption of advanced technologies into stealth warships will provide a strategic edge to India and adds to the combat capabilities of the armed forces.
- Further, advanced stealth warships not just help in surface operations, but are also capable of engaging in anti-aircraft and anti-submarine warfare.
Nut graf: Modern-day destroyers are regarded as key assets in naval operations especially during emergencies because of their advanced capabilities. The induction of INS Mormugao into the Indian Navy with similar capabilities is expected to bolster the naval force and provide a strategic advantage to India.