Current Affairs 24 November

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24 November 2022


Nyingma  Sect
El Niño-La Niña weather patterns
The Kuki people
South China Sea Code of Conduct
GS 1
Art and Culture

Nyingma  Sect

Context-Buddhist sect finds ‘reincarnation’ of famous Rinpoche

The Nyingma sect is the oldest of all Buddhist sects, and Taklung Setrung Rinpoche was a profound scholar renowned for his expertise in Tibetan Tantric School.

The Rinpoche used to live in the Takthok monastery of Ladakh, one of the oldest monasteries related to the Nyingma sect.


The Nyingma sect of Tibetan Buddhism is the oldest amongst the four schools and the second largest after Gelugpa sect.

Nyingma in Tibetan means “ancient” and has roots going back to the 8th century when the indigenous Bon religion was strongly adhered to by Tibetans.

The Nyingma sect is also known as the Red Hat sect because its Lamas wear red robes and hats.

Its teachings are mainly based on those of Padmasambhava, called Guru Rinpoche and Shantarakshita who were brought to Tibet through the rule of the Emperor Trisong Detsen from 742 to 797 CE.

Taklung Setrung Rinpoche was a profound scholar renowned for his expertise in Tibetan Tantric school.

History of Nyingma School:

In the 7th century, Buddhism found its way to Tibet when the Tibetan King, Songtsen Gampo, married the Chinese Princess, Wen Cheng.

The Princess had brought along her Buddha statue which is today preserved at Jokhang Temple in Lhasa.

Later on in the 8th century, when Tibetans preferred their Bon religion, the King, on advice of the scholar-monk Master Shantarakshita, brought the great Padmasambhava to drive away the demons hampering the introduction of Buddhism in Tibet.

By the middle of the 9th century, Buddhism was widely spread in the region.

A large collection of Buddhist scriptures were translated into Tibetan and the Samye Monastery was built around 779 CE. Up to the 11th century, Nyingma was the sole sect of Buddhism in Tibet.

It is the only sect in Tibetan Buddhism that did not assume political power.

Teachings of the Nyingma Sect:

Buddhist teachings are classified into nine yanas with ‘Dzogchen’ being most important.

Dzogchen (Great Perfection) philosophy revolves around pure awareness which can be achieved through meditation and learned from a Dzogchen master.

This Vajrayana tradition involves use of ritual, symbols and tantric practices to achieve nirvana.

Therefore Nyingma stresses on teachings attributed to Padmasambhava, the Dzogchen doctrines as well as Tantric practices.

The Nyingma School is also associated with Termas (hidden treasures).

When Buddhism was declining during the rule of king Langdarma, Padmasambhava and his disciples hid numerous scriptures, ritual objects and relics in caves and rocks on mountains.

Over time, when they were discovered by Tertons (treasure revealers) either physically or revealed to their mind (Mind Terma), the teachings were compiled into Rinchen Terdzo, a multi-volume book.

Indian Geography

El Niño-La Niña weather patterns

Context- Are El Niño-La Niña weather patterns changing?

New study projects that climate change will significantly impact El Niño ­La Niña weather patterns approximately by 2030 — a decade before what was earlier predicted.

El Niño is the warming of sea waters in the central ­east Equatorial Pacific that occurs every few years. La Niña is the opposite, wherein we see cooler than average sea surface temperature in the equatorial Pacific region. The neutral state between the two opposite effects is called the El Niño Southern Oscillation.

In India, El Niño causes weak rainfall and more heat, while La Niña intensifies rainfall across South Asia

The Kuki people

Context-MHA takes up with MEA influx of Kuki­ Chins 

The Kuki people are an ethnic group native to the Mizo Hills (formerly Lushai), a mountainous region in the south-eastern part of Mizoram and Manipur in India. The Kuki constitute one of several hill tribes within India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. In Northeast India, they are present in all states except Arunachal Pradesh.

The expansion of this group is largely due to the British policy in India which included many more tribal groups and called them the Kuki tribes. The Kuki tribes are distinctly marked for their lifestyle which includes their economic, political, social and religious structure, along with spread of Christianity. Various changes have been initiated by the government for the upliftment of these tribal groups.

GS 2
International Relations

South China Sea Code of Conduct

Context-‘South China Sea Code of Conduct should align with international law’

“We are concerned about complicating actions that have eroded trust and confidence, and undermined peace and stability in the region…We believe that regional security initiatives must be consultative and development oriented, to reflect the larger consensus,” Mr. Singh said addressing the ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) Defence Ministers Plus meeting in Cambodia

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