|The Criterion For SC Status|
Insolvency and bankuptcy code
General studies 2
The Criterion For SC Status
These Communities We Notified as Scheduled Castes as per provisions contained in Clause 1 of Article 341 of the Constitution.
Scheduled castes are those castes/races in the country that suffer from extreme social, educational and economic backwardness arising out of age-old practice of untouchability and certain others on account of lack of infrastructure facilities and geographical isolation, and who need special consideration for safeguarding Their Interests and for their accelerated Socio -economic Development.
The 2011 Census Places the Number of Scheduled Castes in India at 16.6 % Population, or approximately 166,635,700 people.
Context- White House Calls Opec Plus Supply Cut Move ‘ShortSighted’
What is the OPEC+?
OPEC+ Refers to the Alliance of Crude Produners, Who Have Been Undertaking Corrections in Supply in the Oil Markets Sin 2017.
OPEC PLUS COUNTRIES INCLUDE Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Brunei, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Mexico, Oman, Russia, South Sudan and Sudan.
What are their goals?
The Opec and Non-Opec Produners Firstly formed the Alliance at a Historic Mee Ting in Algiers in 2016.
The Aim Was to Undertake Production Restrictions to Help Resuscite A Flailing Market.
What is opec?
• The Organization of the Petroleum Exports (OPEC) was found in Baghdad, Iraq, with the signing of an Agreement in September 1960 by Five. They want to be the founder member of the organization.
• It is a permament, intergovernmental organization.
• Currently, The Organization has a Total of 14 Member Countries.
• OPEC’S OBJECTIVE IS TO CO-ORDINATE and unified petrolum policies among member countries, in order to secure fair and stable prices for petrolum products; An effective, economic and regular support of Petroleum to consuming nations; And a fairy return on capital to throw in the industry.
• It is headquartedin vienna, Austria.
• Opec Membership is open to any country that is a substantial Expert of Oil and Which Shares the Ideals of the Organization.
Why is OPEC+ More Influential Than Opec?
OPEC’S 14 MEMBERS Control 35 Percent of Global Oil Suppories and 82 Percent of Proven Reserves. With the Addition of the 10 Non-opec Nations, Notable Among Them Russia, Mexico and Kazakhstan, Those Shares Increase to 55 Percent and 90 Percent. This happens OPEC+ A LEVEL of influence over the world economy never before.
General Studies 3
Indian Economy Section
Insolvency and bankuptcy code
What is insolvency and bankuptcy?
Insolvency is a situation where individuals or companies are unable to repay their outstanding Debt.
Bankruptcy, on the other hand, is a site of compote jurisdiction has declared a person or other entity insolvent, having passed applications to resolve it and protect the rights of the rights. It is a legal declaration of one ‘inability to pay off debts.
About the ibc:
The IBC Was Enacted in 2016, replacing a host of laws, with the aim to streamline and Speed up the Resolution Process of Failed Businesses.
The code is consolidates provisions of the currant legislative framework to form a common forum forum for debtors and crediters of all classes to resolve.
The code stiplants that the resolution process of a stressed company will have to be completed in a maximum of 270 days.
What does the insolvency and bankuptcy code (IBC) apply?
In march this year, the governance raised the threshold for invoking insolvency under the IBC to rs 1 croree from 1 Lakh with a view to prevention of Such procedings.
The code creates variable institute to facilitate resolution of insolvency. They are as follows:
Insolvency Professionals: A Specialized Cadre of Licensed Professionals is Proped to Be Created. These professional will administer the resolution process, management the assets of the Debtor, and provide information for creditors the assist.
Insolvency Professional Agency: The Insolvency Professionals will be registered with insolvency professional agencies. The Agency Conduct Examinations to Certification the Insolvency Professional and Enforce a Code of Conduct for their Performance.
Information Utilities: Creditors Will Report Financial Information of the Debt Owed to Them by the Debtor. Such Information will involvement of debts, Liabilities and defaults.
Adjudicating Authorities: The Processedings of the Resolution Process Will Be Adjudicated by the National Companies Law Tribunal, for Companies; And the Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT), for Individuals. The debts will involved approval to initiate the resolution process, appoint the insole development professional, and applicable the drain decision of creditors.
Insolvency and Bankrupcy Board: The Board will regulate insolvecy professionals, insolvency professional agencies and information utilities set up under the code. The Board Will Consistency of Representatives of Reserve Bank of India, and the Ministries of Finance, Corporate Affairs and Laws.
The grated Response Action Plan (GRP) was notified by the environment ministry in January 2017 as a response to the severe pollution experienced by Delhi and Adjoining Areas.
It work online as an emergency measure.
As Such, the Plan Does Not Include Action by Various State Governors to Be Taken Through the Year to Tackle Industrial, Vehicular and Combustion Emissions.
When the air quality shifts from poor to look, the measures have been like to be followed sign the plan is in nature.
- The Plan Requires Action and Coordination Among 13 Different Againcies in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan (NCR Areas).
- At the head of the table is the episa, mandated by the supreme court.
- Before the Imposition of Any Measures, Epca Holds a Meeting With Representative from NCR States, and a Call is Take on Who To Be Made Applicable in WHY Town.
Severe+ Or Emergency– (PM 2.5 Over 300 µG/Cubic Metre or PM10 Over 500 µg/CU. M. for 48+ Hours):
- Stop Entry of Trucks into Delhi.
- Stop Construction Work.
- Introduce ODD/Even Scheme for Private Vehicles .
- Task Force to Decide Any Additional Steps Including Shutting of Schools.
Severe- (PM 2.5 over 250 µg/cu. M. or pm10 over 430 µg/cu m.):
- Close Brick Kilns, Hot Mix Plants, Stone Crushers.
- Maximise Power Generation from Natural Gas to Reduce Generation from Coal.
- Encourage Public transport, with diffrential rates.
- More Freevent Mechanised Cleaning of Road and Sprinkling of Water.
Very Poor-(PM2.5 121-250 µg/cu. M. or pm10 351-430 µg/cu.):
- Stop Use of Diesel Generator Sets.
- Enhance Parking Fee by 3-4 times.
- Increase Bus and Metro Services.
- Apartment Owners to Discourage Burning Fires in Winter by Providing Electric Heators Durning Winter.
- Advisories to People with Respiory and Cardiac Conditions to restrict outdoor Movement.
Modarate to poor- (PM2.5 61-120 µg/cu. M. or pm10 101-350 µg/cu.):
- Heavy Fines for garbage burning.
- Close/Enforce Pollution Control Regulations in Brick Kilns and Industries.
- Mechanized sweeping on Roads with heavy traffic and water sprinkling.
- Strictly Enforce Ban on Firecrackers.
Science and Technology
Colossion Left a TRAI of Space Debris of 10000 Kilometers
- The main Aim of the mission is to test the new developed technology that would all be a spacecraft to crash into an asteroid and change.
- The Target of the Spacecraft is a Small Moonal Moonlet Called Dimorphos (Greek for “Two Forms”). It is about 160-meter in diameter and the spacecraft is expected to collide when it is 11 million kilometres aeway from earth.
- Dimorphos Orbits a Larger Asteroid Named Didymos (Greek for “Twin”) By this has a diameter of 780 metres.
Context- Nobel for work on ‘Click Chemistry’ and Quantum Mechanics
- Click Chemistry Refers to a Group of Chemical Reactions that are Fast, Simple, Versatile, and Give High Product .
- It Describes a Way of Linking Together Molecules like in Nature, which also generates substances by joining smal modular units.
- molecular building block that snap together quickly: That How the noobel Committee Described It
- Click Chemistry and Bioorthogonal Chemistry are now used globally to explore cells and track biological processes.
- Using Bio orthogonal Reactions, Researchers have improved the targeting of cancer pharmaceuticals.
- Such improved pharmaceuticals are now being tested in clinical trials.
- Click Chemistry is also used for mapping dna and creating materials that are more for purpose.
India Emerges as the World’s Largest Producer and Consover of Sugar and World’s 2nd Largest Expert of Sugar
Growth of ethanol as biofuel sector in last 5 years has amply supported the sugar sector as use of sugar to ethanol has led to better financial positions of sugar mills due to faster payments, reduced working capital requirements and less blockage of funds due to less surplus sugar With mills.